::Aizu Biographies ::

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Abei Chuuhachi (1818-1868) Aizu retainer stipended at 130 koku. The adoptive son of Confucian scholar Abei Bouzan; adoptive father of Abei Masaharu. On domainal orders, he studied at the Shoheizaka Academy in Edo for four years. Also known as Shouan. Posted to fire duty at Toyo'oka Shrine. During the Boshin War, he fought at the Battle of Tonoguchihara, and was killed in action. His burial site is unknown, but his grave is at the combined war dead grave monument at Amida-ji, in Aizu-Wakamatsu city. His son Abei Masaharu died in action at Hakodate. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinabeicyuuhachi.htm)

Abei Jutaro (1841-1921) Aizu retainer. Famed physician and poet. Studied Japanese poetry under Machiya Tsunekata, and became director of Japanese studies at Nisshinkan. During his posting at Kyoto, he studied poetry in the style of Kagawa Kageki. He then went to Edo and studied the French language, infantry strategy, and castle construction protocol, at the school of Nishi Amane. Fought in the Boshin War at the Battle of Sono. After the war, he was confined at Shiokawa, where he became a teacher. Later, he returned from Tonami to Aizu, studied Western-style medicine, and started out work at Sugita-mura. His grave is in Kokuunji, in Kongu-cho, Adachi district, Fukushima prefecture. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinabeijyutarou.htm)

Abei Masaharu (1845-1869) Aizu retainer, Yuugekitai soldier. Born in Wakamatsu Castle town, the 2nd son of Kasaka Gengo, Masaharu was adopted by Abei Chuuhachi. Skilled scholar who graduated from Nisshinkan in 1861, and went to the elite Shoheizaka School in Edo. He also researched Western-style fortress construction. After the Aizu domain cleared out of Edo at the start of the Boshin War, he remained, and investigated enemy sentiments. He then went on to campaign in various Tohoku domains on behalf of the Northern Alliance. However, while in Sendai, he received word that Aizu had fallen, so he joined Enomoto Takeaki's fleet and went north to Hokkaido, serving as an officer in the Aizu-Yuugekitai.

Abiko Tomohiko (1857-1942) Aizu retainer. Born in Torii-cho, Wakamatsu, the son of Okamoto Josuke. Succeeded to the Abiko family headship in 1867. During the Boshin War, his birth father Josuke, and brother Okamoto Yoshihiko died at Shirakawa. After the war he went to Tonami, and in 1875, joining the gathering of colonists for Hokkaido, went to Kotoji (modern-day Sapporo) with his uncle, Iwasaki Sadagoro. He put great effort into cultivation. He joined the army and was deployed to Kyushu during the Seinan War. Wounded in the action near Hitoyoshi, he was returned to Kotoji, later serving in the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars. He retired a first lieutenant. Later, he assisted the development of Kotoji even further. His grave is in Heiwa-reien Cemetery, in Sapporo City. (Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinabiko.htm)

Agata Samon (1844-13 February 1901) Aizu retainer. Born in Wakmatsu, the eldest son of Agata Iwanoshin. In the Boshin War, he was a platoon leader in the 1st company of Seiryutai. Posted to Oreikiguchi, he went into battle at Shirakawa in April. Wounded in battle, he returned to Aizu. After the surrender, he moved to Shiokawa, and in Meiji 2, he was placed in confinement, under the care of Takada-han. In October of the same year, Tonami-han was founded, and Samon moved to Gonohe-Nanogasaki. In Meiji 6, he moved once more, to Harano-Sanbongi, in Kita-gun, and worked in cultivation. In May of Meiji 8, he joined the gathering of colonizers, and moved to Kotoji Village. On 23 May he was granted command of the colonizers, and was given the rank of corporal. Samon joined the deployment to Kumamoto on 9 April 1877 during the Seinan War. He received great praise for his action on 4 June, for clearing out an enemy position during the Hitoyoshi offensive. This earned him a promotion to "quasi-sergeant" (jun-rikugun-socho). After the Seinan War he returned to cultivation, becoming a lieutenant (Meiji 18) and then a captain (Meiji 24). He served in the Sino-Japanese War in 1894. After the conclusion of peace, he returned to Kotoji, and spent the rest of his days, singing Noh chants and playing go with his old friends. He died on 13 February 1901, at the age of 58.

Akabane Iori (??-1868) Aizu retainer. Gokuban (food-server) stipended at 200 koku. Iori joined Lord Matsudaira Katamori, who on 9 December 1867 (Gregorian date: 2 January 1868) resigned as Shugoshoku, and retreated from Nijo Castle to Osaka. As a result, he did not join the battle at Toba-Fushimi. He also joined Katamori on his trip to Edo; later, on Katamori's trip to Nozawa (28 July) and Takizawa (22 August). Retreating the next day in the face of a massive kangun onslaught, he retreated with Katamori into the castle. On the 26th, while scouting enemy movements, he was shot dead. (Source:http://homepage3.nifty.com/naitouhougyoku/frame11/jinmei-a.htm)

Akabane Shozaburo (1807-April 1894) Aizu retainer. Son of Akabane Denbei Toshikazu. A famed literary figure of the late Edo period; studied in Edo, and wrote many books. Father of Akabane Shiro, Japanese ambassador to Holland. (Source: http://homepage3.nifty.com/naitouhougyoku/frame11/jinmei-a.htm)

Akabane Yasokichi (1814-1868) Aizu retainer. Younger brother of Akabane Shozaburo. During the Boshin War, upon the invasion of the enemy into Wakamatsu, he made a private request, and was appointed platoon leader under Komuro Kingozemon. He was also given the rank of monogashira. Taking part in the Battle of Chomeiji on 28 August, he fought hard, but was killed in a skirmish after the battle was won. He was 54. (Source:http://homepage3.nifty.com/naitouhougyoku/frame11/jinmei-a.htm)

Akadzuka Takemori (1852-7 April 1879) Aizu retainer, son of Akadzuka Harusada. After the Boshin War, he moved to Tonami; in 1872, he went to Tokyo and joined the police force. In the Seinan War, he was a 2nd Lieutenant in the army. Died at age 28; at his funeral, over 1000 of his fellow policemen attended. (Source: http://homepage3.nifty.com/naitouhougyoku/frame11/jinmei-a.htm)

Akai Juubei (1824-1864) Aizu retainer, stipended at 4 koku and 2 nin-fuchi. During the Kyoto Shugoshoku years, he was stationed in Kyoto under Yamauchi Kurando as a yoriki (officer). Serving in the Aizu army at the Battle of Kinmon (18 July 1864), he was killed in action. His age at death was 40. (Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinakai.htm)

Akiyama Saemon (??-1868) Aizu samurai. Studied at the Shoheizaka Academy, in Edo. He was, in particular, fond of the Zuo Zhuan (commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals). Saemon served as medical instructor at Nisshinkan, the domain school. During the Boshin War, he assisted in efforts within the castle (during the siege). When he heard rumors that surrender was imminent, he refused to believe it. When notification was released on the 5th of November (21 September by the old calendar) that surrender was about to take place, he waited until the middle of the night and shot himself. He was buried in a mass grave at Amida-ji in Nanokaichi, Wakamatsu City. (Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinakiyama.htm)

Amakawa Fukauemon (1836-1877) Aizu retainer. After the Boshin War, he went to Tonami, and later returned to Aizu. Going to Tokyo, he joined the police department, and during the Seinan War, was attached to 5th Battalion, 3rd Independent Brigade. He held the rank of corporal. Fukauemon was killed in action in Kagoshima, in June 1877. His grave is in Gion-zu Cemetery, in Kagoshima City. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinamakawa.htm)

Aoyama Yuunoshin (??-1868) Aizu retainer, son of Aoyama Senoshin. In the Boshin War, he fought in the Yoriai-rank Byakkotai, Unit 2, under Ota. He fought in the defense of the castle, but was killed at Odagaki on 14 September, at age 17. His funerary name is Jinkoin-zen-yogi-un-kouji. Having fallen in action with his friend Yasue Sukesaburo, both men were buried at the Byakkotai cemetery on Mt. Iimori. (Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinaoyama.htm)

Arakawa Katsushige (1833-1909) Retainer of Aizu karo Kitahara Danjo. Also known by his common name Taguemon. Son of the Kitahara retainer and poet Arakawa Umeji. For generations, the Arakawa family served as head of the 20-strong Kitahara retainer band. According to his writing of November 1869, he had a position of gokuban and a post in the Shingekitai. After the defeat, he was confined in Shiokawa, and was confined in a POW camp in Takada-han starting in February 1869. After his release he moved to Tonami, and worked for the sake of the domain's restoration. It was at this time that he left the exhaustive four-volume work "Meiji Nisshi." After the abolition of the domains, he returned to Aizu, and worked with distinction as a teacher. His grave is at Shohoji, in Aizu-Wakamatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinarakawa.htm)

Arakawa Umeji (1804-1867) Retainer of Aizu karo Kitahara Danjo. For generations, the Arakawa family served as head of the 20-strong Kitahara retainer band. Also known as Katsukuni, he loved haiku-writing from his youth. His pen names included Kohoan, Kokoku, and Keiseki. Carrying on the form of [Matsuo] Basho, he corresponded with the great haiku masters of Edo. He was the central figure in the haiku world of Wakamatsu. Umeji wrote over 2000 haiku, and his son edited and published an anthology, "Umeji-hatsu Kushu". Unfortunately, most of them were destroyed in the fires of the Boshin War. His grave was at Hoshoji Temple, in Naka-Rokkaichi, but the temple is no longer extant. (Sources: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinarakawaumeji.htm)

Ebina Gunji (??-??) Also known as Toshimasa. Aizu karo. Went to France with Yokoyama Chikara Tsunemori, where they met Yamakawa Okura (Hiroshi) who was on duty with Koide Hidezane, in negotiations with Russia. Later becoming Christian, Ebina lived in Aizu for much of his later years. (Tsunabuchi Kenjo, ed. Matsudaira Katamori no Subete CITATION NEEDED)

Gamo Seiichiro (1844-1879) Aizu samurai. Formerly known as Yamaura Tetsushiro. On 8 October (23 August by the old calendar), the first day of the siege, he was wounded and so already in the castle, but as Tenjinbashi Gate was dangerously undermanned, he took a group of strong men and at around 3 PM went into battle, cutting his way through enemy lines before reentering the castle through the western detached circle (nishi-de-maru). After the surrender, he changed his name to Gamo Seiichiro, and traveled to Tonami overland in the winter. In 1871, he married Nakano Yuuko, who had gained fame in the Joshigun, and together they lived in Hakodate. His grave is in Minatomachi, in Hachinohe City, Aomori. (source: Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten) http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jingamou.htm

Harada Tsushima (??-??) Aizu karo. Present at the surrender ceremony. (CITATION NEEDED)

Hinata Yuki (1851-1944) Daughter of Aizu samurai Hinata Saemon. Cousin of the famed Shiba Goro and Iinuma Sadakichi. Lost her father and brothers during the Boshin War. A prolific author, Yuki recorded her experiences in "Mannen Omoto" and "Meiji Nyonin no Kiroku." Buried in Sapporo, at the Satodzuka Cemetery. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinhinatayuki.htm)

Hirata Kocho (1850-1885) Born in the Aizu residence at Wadakura, in Edo. Kocho was the eldest daughter of Aizu retainer Hirata Monjuro. She studied naginata and penmanship under Akaoka Tadayoshi, together with Nakano Takeko. Together with Takeko, she was adopted by Akaoka. During the Boshin War, she went to Aizu and alternated residences, teaching naginata. Retreating to Takaku, in Kanzashi Village, on the 23rd of August, she met with her adoptive sister Takeko on the 24th. Fought at Yanagibashi (Ruibashi) on the 25th, though it is unclear whether or not she fought alongside Takeko. Her grave is in Chomeiji, in Daito-ku, Tokyo. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinhiratakocyou.htm)

Ibuka Toyo (1853-1944) Daughter of Aizu senior retainer Ikoma Gohei Naomichi; born in Wakamatsu castle town. Her mother was Saigo Tanomo's daughter Toyo. During the siege of Tsurugajo in the Boshin War, she undertook cooking and nursing duties. After the war, she gathered up the remains of her 21 dead relatives who had committed suicide in the Saigo residence (led by her aunt Saigo Chieko); Toyo buried them at Zenryuji Temple and had a funeral. In 1871 she married Ibuka Tsuneshichiro Shigeyuki, head of the main Ibuka household, in Tonami. She had two children, but because her husband died, she raised them alone. Her grave is in Kuboyama Cemetery, in the south ward of Yokohama city.

Ichinose Kenmotsu (??-1868) Aizu retainer. Intended on joining the force under Ishiguro Tsunematsu that had been ordered to silence enemy artillery positions set up in Seishoji Temple's cemetery; however, as he was elderly and found himself to be weak, he committed seppuku. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinkenmotsu.htm)

Igarashi Chuemon (1772-1868) Aizu retainer. Gateman. Perhaps the oldest Aizu casualty on record, 96 year old Igarashi died in action at the Battle of Keirinji-cho Gate on 23 August (8 October by the Gregorian calendar), at the start of the Aizu siege. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, pp. 87-88)

Iida Heizaemon (??-??) Aizu retainer. Served as Military Affairs Magistrate. When the kangun began approaching Aizu's borders, he proposed moving the domain's emergency rice stores into Tsuru-ga-jo; however, an opposing group of retainers accused him of harming morale, and he was reassigned. However, when Heizaemon's fears were realized, Matsudaira Katamori made him a Military Affairs Magistrate. Heizaemon's son was given a command role. (Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jiniida.htm)

Imaizumi Takeshi (1852-1868) Aizu retainer, son of Imaizumi Dennosuke. Studied in Nisshinkan, and later at the Shoheizaka Academy, in Edo. Excelled at calligraphy. Fighting at Toba-Fushimi, he joined the retreat and headed back to Wakamatsu. Takeshi joined the force in Shirakawa to stop the kangun's advance, but after hard fighting, the Aizu force had no choice but to retreat. Drawing his sword, he charged into enemy ranks, and was killed. He is buried in the collective Aizu war dead grave at Matsunami, in Shirakawa City, Fukushima Prefecture. (Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten) Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinimaizumitakesi.htm

Jinbo Kuranosuke (??-1868) Aizu retainer, served as karo. Came from a long line of karo, going back to a family which had once served the Sassa of Etchu, during the Sengoku period. Kuranosuke took part in the Kyoto Shugoshoku administration, and also took part in the Battle of Toba-Fushimi. Returning to Aizu after the withdrawal from Osaka and Edo, he took part in the domain's defense. Commanding the defensive force at the Battel of Koga-cho Gate together with fellow karo Tanaka Tosa, he was routed, and committed suicide with the doctor Tsuchiya Ichian, together in the latter's residence. Kuranosuke was the father of the karo Jinbo Shuri (husband of the famed woman warrior Jinbo Yukiko), and Aizu retainer Kitahara Masanaga, who later wrote Shichinenshi, the first work of Bakumatsu-era Aizu history not written by the victors. Kuranosuke also had another son who was an Aizu retainer. (CITATION NEEDED)

Kajiwara Heima (??-??) Aizu karo. Husband of the famed Meiji-era educator Yamakawa Futaba. (Citation Needed)

Kayano Gonbei (??-1870?) Aizu karo. Out of four karo singled out by the new government as being responsible in Aizu's resistance (and thereby guilty of treason and sentenced to death), he was the only one whose whereabouts were still known. Gonbei committed suicide in the residence of Hoshina Masaari, daimyo of Iino-han and relative of the Aizu daimyo. Prior to his death he received a poem from Teruhime, who was born to the Hoshina of Iino and was Hoshina Masaari's sister. Gonbei was buried in Tokyo. (Yamakawa 662/Tsunabuchi Kenjo, ed. Matsudaira Katamori no Subete. CITATION NEEDED)

Kayano Uhei (1840-1872) Aizu samurai. Succeeded to family headship, and its 500 koku hereditary stipend, in 1855 (Ansei 2). Served as guard captain, infantry captain, and city magistrate. Served as an officer leading men from Aizu-Hongo, and fought in Echigo during the Boshin War. After the defeat, he was confined in Takada. He took charge, as an impromptu karo, of over 1720 Aizu men. After the war, he moved back to Hongo and lived there, working in the pottery business. Died of illness at age 33. His grave is at Tenneiji, in Aizu-Wakamatsu. At Gongenzan, in Hongo, there is a memorial stone dedicated to him. (source: Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten) Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinkayanouhei.htm

Kubota Juuta (??-1877) Aizu samurai. Born in Soma-cho, Wakamatsu. Also known as Juutaro. His father Hanji had the distinction of being the "first spear" at the Battle of Hamagurigomon, and so, young Juutaro succeeded to family headship at age 13, with a bestowed stipend of 100 koku, as part of the tozama-gumi. In the Boshin War he was part of Byakkotai Shichu Unit 1. Unit 1 was part of the Battle of Koga-cho Gate in the early morning hours of 23 August. However, the gate was overrun, and the unit retreated into the castle, overseeing defense for the South Gate, and also relieving the sallying operations of the units under Komuro and Yamaura. On the 27th, the unit joined with the remnants of Unit 2, forming the Byakko-shichu Combined Unit, and came under the command of karo (senior councilor) Harada Tsushima, who had command of the castle's western detached circle (nishi-de-maru). After the war, Juuta was confined in Inawashiro, and then sent to Tokyo. Pardoned, he was allowed to move to Tonami. After some time, he returned to Tokyo, and joined the police force, changing his name to Juuta. In Meiji 10, he served in the Seinan War, as a 3rd class policeman. He was part of the 2nd Platoon, 1st company, 4th battalion, 3rd Independent Brigade. He took part in the fierce fighting at Nakaozan in Kumamoto Prefecture, and was gunned down. Sensing his death to be near, Juuta said "My father was martyred for the nation by becoming first spear at Hamagurigomon. I too will die for the country. In the end, I regret nothing." It is said that all who watched were moved to tears. On 13 April, Taisho 4, when the war dead from the Seinan War were enshrined in Yasukuni-jinja, Juuta was one of them, finally having his loyalty repaid. He was enshrined under the name Shinchu-reishin. In the Atago Shrine, he is enshrined with his father (Bushin-reishin), and there is a monument to them there. (sources: Kojima Kazuo "Aizu-jinbutsu jiten (Bujin-hen)") Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinkubota.htm

Maruyama Hokoku (1817-1898) Aizu samurai, stipended at 500 koku. Painter. Excelled at art, poetry, and martial arts. Hokoku served as gakko-bugyo (educational affairs magistrate), and carried on his love of art and education for the rest of his life. Hokoku died in his residence in Sapporo. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinmaruyama.htm)

Mase Mitsu (1834-Aug. 11, 1921) Born in Wakamatsu, Mitsu was the 2nd daughter of Aizu retainer Mase Shinbei Toshisada and his wife, Matsu (daughter of Kurokochi Zusho). From a young age, she loved scholarship. Trapped in the castle during the siege, she lost her two younger brothers Iwagoro and Genshichiro (one of the Byakkotai members who committed suicide), as well as her younger sister Yu. After the surrender, she went to Tonami with her nephew (Iwagoro's son) Seikichi. Returned to Aizu in the spring of 1874 (Meiji 7), and went on to write “Boshin-go Zakki” (“Miscellaneous Post-Boshin Notes”). Died at her residence in Aizu, in the former Zaimoku-cho, number 19. Buried at Ten’neiji. Her Buddhist honorary name is Chishitsumyodaishi. (Source: http://homepage3.nifty.com/naitouhougyoku/frame11/framepage6.htm, originally from Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten)

Nakamura Tatewaki (??-1868) Aizu retainer, stipended at 300 koku. Platoon leader of Byakkotai Shichu Unit 1. Accompanied Matsudaira Katamori to Koga-cho Gate on the return from Takizawa to the castle. Remaining there, he mounted a defense. Despite his hard fight, he was unable to seize the advantage, and the gate was lost. He retreated into the castle, but was shot in the left hip. Without flinching, Tatewaki moved his swords from his left hip to his right, saying "Take that!," which greatly bolstered the morale of his men. On the return he passed by the residence of Tsuchiya Ichian, where Tanaka Tosa and Jinbo Kuranosuke were preparing to commit seppuku; they invited him to join them, however, he firmly refused. Entering through an unknown gate, he came through to the 3rd Enclosure (sannomaru) of the castle, thus successfully seeing his unit through to safety. Immediately entering hospital quarters, he was given treatment; however, on the 14th of September, a direct enemy shell hit ended his life. He was 39. (source: Aizu Boshin Senshi)

Nakazawa Juro (??-1868?) Aizu retainer. Father of Nakazawa Shizuma. Assisted in his family's suicides, then went to Inawashiro for confinement. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nakazawa Kiseko (1823-1868) Wife of Aizu retainer Nakazawa Juro. Committed suicide in her family residence on 23 August (8 October) 1868, with Juro acting as second. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nakazawa Shigehiko (1866-1868) Son of Aizu retainer Nakazawa Shizuma. Committed suicide in his father's residence on 23 August (8 October) 1868, with his grandfather Juro assisting. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nakazawa Shizuma (??-1868) Aizu retainer, stipended at 300 koku. Captain in the Ichioka defensive artillery unit, which was deployed on the front, in Echigo Province. Shizuma was killed in action at Sanjo, in Echigo Province, on 3 August (18 September) 1868. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nakazawa Suteko (1857-1868) Wife of Aizu retainer Nakazawa Shizuma. Committed suicide in her family residence on 23 August (8 October) 1868, with her father-in-law Nakazawa Juro assisting. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nakazawa Teruko (1808-1868) Grandmother of Aizu retainer Nakazawa Shizuma. Committed suicide in her family residence on 23 August (8 October) 1868, with her son Nakazawa Juro assisting. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nakano Heinai (1810-Sept. 13, 1878) Aizu retainer. Official name was Tadamasa, pen name was Bansui. Edo-based supply officer, loved learning, and was an instructor of the Jimei-in-ryu of grammar (literally "writing-rules"). Married Kouko, daughter of Oinuma Kinai, samurai in the service of the Toda of Ashikaga han. Eldest daughter was Takeko [Nakano Takeko]. Transferred to the Aizu-based force the year before Boshin, returning to Aizu and setting up temporary residence in Beidai Ninocho, at the quarters of Tamogami Hyogo, a distant relative. His grave is in the cemetery of Myohoji, at Aizu Wakamatsu city's Baba-honcho (Sources: http://homepage3.nifty.com/naitouhougyoku/frame11/framepage6.htm)

Nonaka Rokuro (1860-1868) Son of Aizu retainer Nonaka Shiemon. Committed suicide on 23 August (8 October) 1868, with his father acting as second. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nonaka Shiemon (1817-1868) Formerly based in Edo as armory quartermaster. Aizu retainer stipended at 75 koku. Shiemon was gravely ill and unable to walk for a long time. But on the day of the siege (23 August/8 October), he got his family together and explained things to them, and they offered to commit suicide. He helped each one of them commit suicide, and then charged into the enemy ranks before being gunned down. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nonaka Shiemon's wife (1830-1868) Committed suicide on 23 August in her family residence, with her husband acting as her second. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nonaka Shiemon's first daughter (1842-1868) Committed suicide on 23 August in her family residence, with her father acting as her second. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nonaka Shiemon's 2nd daughter (1849-1868) Committed suicide on 23 August in her family residence, with her father acting as her second. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nonaka Shiemon's 5th daughter (1858-1868) Committed suicide on 23 August in her family residence, with her father acting as her second. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Nonaka Shiemon's 6th daughter (1863-1868) Committed suicide on 23 August in her family residence, with her father acting as her second. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Odagiri Sotozaburo (1819-1868) Aizu samurai. The 3rd son of Odagiri Sannojo, he was stipended at 150 koku. Completing his studies at Nisshinkan, he received menkyo kaiden certification in Itto-ryu swordsmanship. In his youth, he had difficulty walking, so he set up a school in Hariya-cho and had many students. During the Boshin War, when the kangun approached the castle town, a woman from Echigo who lived with Sotozaburo suggested suicide to him, saying "It is unbecoming of a samurai, who has received his lord's favor for generations, to avoid trouble." Sotozaburo committed suicide in his school. The woman fled, and later built him a tomb in Echigo. (source: Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten) Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinodagiri.htm

Ohara Jinhachi (1835-1863) Aizu samurai. Born in a flower field in Aizu-Wakamatsu. Known by his common name Yasunoshin or his formal name Toshinaga. At age 5, Jinhachi lost his father, so he was brought up by his mother (from the Kurokochi family). Went to Nisshinkan. Though his mother was destitute, she made a suit of armor for him. Upon Perry's arrival in 1853 (Kaei 6) he was sent to the Boso Peninsula to join in Aizu's security operations there. In 1862 he joined Matsudaira Katamori's deployment to Kyoto, and was assigned an "outside" posting (tozama-tsuki). Once there, he was assigned to duties involving secret affairs and military readiness. The following year, he was part of Naito Suke'emon's unit at the Kinmon Incident, and was shot dead by enemy gunfire. He is buried at the Aizu cemetery in Kurotani, Kyoto. (source: Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten) Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinobara.htm

Sakai Mineji (??-??) Aizu samurai. Served in the Shichu-Byakkotai 2nd Unit, and was one of its few survivors. (CITATION NEEDED.)

Sekiba Harutake (1807-1868) Aizu samurai. Also known by his common name Yasugoro. Harutake's ancestor Taemon was a man of Iga. He served Gamo Ujisato (former lord of Aizu) at a stipend of 130 koku, but after the Gamo, his family served the Aizu-Matsudaira for generations. Harutake's father was Yuukichi Harunao, who died in 1808 (Bunka 5) while defending Rishiri Island in the north [off Hokkaido/Ezochi] under Aizu command. As a result, Harutake succeeded to the family headship at age 2, and over the course of his life, served in a variety of posts in the domainal administration. During the Boshin War, he was not permitted to join the fight because of his age, but he repeatedly submitted petitions and was eventually allowed to be an officer in the Kanshitai. Died in action in the west of the castle town. (source: Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten) Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinsekiba.htm

Sekiyama Kayoko (7 April 1841-1901) Poet. Born in Echigo, the daughter of Nakagawa Tameshige, a doctor. Four months before Kayoko was born, her father took her brother's place and committed seppuku. When she was 12, she studied kokugaku with Aizu retainer Takagi Shihei. At age 16, she worked in Tsuru-ga-jo, as Matsudaira Katamori's attendant. At age 20, she left the castle because of illness, and according to one explanation, she may have been pregnant with Katamori's child. Her son, who she named Kenkichi, did in fact bear a remarkable resemblance to Katamori. At age 25, in 1866, she married Shibata-han retainer Suzuki Kenjiro (3rd son of Suzuki Ihei). After the Boshin War, she moved to Tsugawa, and opened a school. In Meiji 19, on the occasion of Katamori passing through Tsugawa, she wrote a poem: Asakaranu/aoi no tsuyu wo/katashikite/Mishi ya no yume no/seki wo zo omou". ("The hollyhock's dew, spreading out deeply...I remember the dream of that night") Kayoko died at age 61. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinsekiyamakayoko.htm)

Soma Naozumi (1817-1911) Aizu samurai. Also known as Yukitane, or by his pen name, Motoya. Studied at Nisshinkan. Assigned to Ezochi (Hokkaido) as kori-bugyo (county magistrate), and later gokurairi-bugyo (Treasury Magistrate) of the Aizu holdings there. Serving as Military Affairs Magistrate (gunji-bugyo) during the Aizu War, he joined karo (senior retainer) Sagawa Kanbei in fighting outside the castle. After surrender, he was confined to Shiokawa, but escaped unaided, going straight to the Army Ministry in Tokyo and appealing for clemency to be shown to Matsudaira Katamori. Immediately arrested, he was placed in the kinshinjo (POW camp/"confinement center") at Shiba-Zojoji. Later pardoned, he was allowed to move to Nonabe, in Tonami-han. Returning to Aizu in 1873 (Meiji 6), he lived a secluded life in the Teramachi (temple neighborhood) of Koarai Village (later Kitakata City) in Yama-gun (Yama district), teaching the local villages' children Chinese and Japanese studies. Posthumous works include Matsunoteki (Pine-drippings) and Motoya-nikki (Motoya's Journal). His grave is at Anshoji Temple, in Kitakata (Source: Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten) Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinsouma.htm

Suwa Ishi(ko) (1840-1868) Wife of Suwa Takenosuke. Died in the Nakazawa residence, with her birth family. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Suwa Kichiko (1819-1907) 3rd daughter of the Itou family of Aizu retainers. Kichiko first married Uchida Takehachi, and bore two daughters, but was divorced. Later, she married Suwa Daishiro, and had one child. During the Boshin War, she took charge of the women and children in Tsuru-ga-jo, and did work that surpassed the men. After the war, she went to Tonami with her son Isuke, and gave a large amount of money that she had put away. In her later years, she engaged in philanthropic work with Iwa Uryu, serving as the Uryu Association's Aizu branch head. Her grave is in Aoyama Cemetery, in Minami-Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinsuwakichiko.htm)

Suwa Takenosuke (??-??) Company commander of Seiryu Niban Ashigaru-tai. Aizu retainer stipended at 300 koku. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 62.)

Suzuki Miwako (1861-??) Daughter of Aizu samurai Ono Gonnojo. The wife of Sagawa Kanbei's vice-commander Suzuki Shigemitsu. During the Boshin War, she was not able to enter Wakamatsu Castle; taking her young daughter Mitsuko, she fled to the northern regions of Aizu. After the war, she moved to Tonami, and later returned to Aizu. Despite great hardships, she was able to raise her two children well. In later years, her daughter Mitsuko wrote a book in which she recorded memories of her mother. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinsuzukimiwako.htm)

Takagi Hatsuko (1866-1868) 2nd daughter of Aizu retainer Takagi Toyojiro. Committed suicide in her father's residence at Hon Ichinocho on 23 August (Gregorian date: 8 October) 1868. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 63.)

Takagi Nuiko (1815-1868) Mother of Wife of Aizu retainer Takagi Toyojiro. Committed suicide in her son's residence at Hon Ichinocho on on 23 August (Gregorian date: 8 October) 1868. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 63.)

Takagi Shinko (1849?/1854?-1868) Eldest daughter of Aizu retainer Takagi Toyojiro. Committed suicide in her father's residence at Hon Ichinocho on 23 August (Gregorian date: 8 October) 1868. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 63.)

Takagi Suteko (1836?/1841?-1868) Wife of Aizu retainer Takagi Toyojiro. Committed suicide in her husband's residence at Hon Ichinocho on 23 August (Gregorian date: 8 October) 1868. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 63.)

Takagi Takenosuke (??-1868) Aizu retainer. Wounded in action, committed suicide at his brother's residence in Hon Ichinocho on 23 August (Gregorian date: 8 October) 1868. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, p. 63.)

Takamine Issai (??-??) Aizu retainer. A scholar and educator, Issai was mentioned in the work of Yoshida Shoin together with Ibuka Shigematsu and other notable Aizu scholars of the age. Grandfather of Takamine Hideo. (CITATION NEEDED).

Takei Nantei (1823-1895) Aizu samurai. Born in Wakamatsu. He was known by his common name Mantaro, and later Kanpei. His pen name was Gomine. In Kansei 6 (1853), he took part in the Aizu defense on the Boso Peninsula (during the Perry mission), and in 1857 was posted to Edo. He returned to Aizu in 1862. That year, he joined his lord Matsudaira Katamori in traveling to Kyoto; and there, Takei corresponded with many famous samurai from Choshu and other domains. He fought in various battles and places in the Boshin War, earning many distinctions. He loved playing koto, and was known by the nickname of "Nantei Kinshi" (Nantei the Koto-playing Gentleman). Also skilled at writing/calligraphy. When his son Yasu became chief priest of Isasumi Shrine, he moved to Takada village. His grave is in the cemetery of Isasumi Shrine, in Aizu-Takada village, Onuma district, Fukushima Prefecture. (source: Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten) Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jintakeinanntei.htm

Takemura Toshihide (1845-7 February 1877) Aizu retainer. Born in Wakamatsu, he was the son of famed Aizu retainer Takemura Jobei. Also known by his common name, Konoshin. Star student of the Nisshinkan. During the war, he received Sendai-han envoy Tamamushi Sadayu, who greatly praised him. During the siege of Wakamatsu, he was in command of the snipers, and assisted Yamakawa Okura. Moving to Tonami after the war, he was in a leadership position in Aomori land cultivation. After a confrontation with prefectural officials, he went to Tokyo, and with the help of fellow Aizu retainer Nagaoka Hisashige, he went to Hagi, in Choshu, and met with Maebara Issei and others. The day after the Shianbashi Incident, he returned to Tokyo, and was promptly apprehended and executed. His grave is at Genkeiji, in Shinjuku, Tokyo. (Sources:http://homepage3.nifty.com/naitouhougyoku/frame11/jinmei-ta.htm)

Tanabe Gunji (1850-1870) Born the eldest son of Tanabe Kumazo, in Sano Village (modern Yukawa Village), Kawanuma District, Iwashiro Province. After the Boshin War, he moved to Tonami, but heard that the village headman Odaira Hachiro of Shirasaka Village had guided the kangun at the Battle of Shirakawaguchi, which had contributed to the Aizu force's defeat. So, in 1870 (Meiji 3) he left Tonami, and after a month on the road, arrived in Shirakawa, soon killing Hachiro. He then promptly committed suicide. His grave is in the Aizu samurai cemetery at Matsunami, in Shirakawa City, Fukushima Prefecture. (source: Bakumatsu Ishin Jinmei Jiten) Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jintanabe.htm

Tanaka Tosa (Bunsei 3-Keio 4/1820-68) Chief senior retainer at the time of the Boshin War. Stipended at 1800 koku, when his lord Katamori was appointed Kyoto Shugoshoku, he and Saigo Tanomo rode on fast horses to Edo, and suggested to him to decline. Tanomo was dead-set against it, but Tosa was persuaded to change his mind, and so he went to Kyoto ahead of Katamori, setting up the headquarters at Konkaikomyoji, in Kurotani. In the 12th month of Keio 1, he was sick, so he returned to Aizu, however, following an improvement in his health, he returned to Kyoto, and counseled Katamori to return home. Katamori decided to return, and so Tosa returned to Aizu, waiting for Katamori's return, however, Katamori became unable to resign, and remained in Kyoto. Tosa once again returned to Kyoto, and was in a position of command at Toba-Fushimi, but was defeated. (Source: Miyazaki Tomihachi, "Tanaka Tosa" (from "Sanbyaku han kashin jinmei jiten"), quoted in: Hoshi Ryoichi, Bakumatsu no Aizu-han. Tokyo: Chuko-shinsho, 2001, p. 141)

Tatsuno Isamu (??-1868) Aizu samurai. 10 koku, 3 ration stipend. Attached to the Kanshitai. On i4/19, as messengers of Ichiyanagi Shirozaemon (Inawashiro Castle Warden and Doyu-guchi defense commander), Tatsuno went to the Sendai-han command in Fukushima, together with Nakane Kenmotsu. Their mission was to go to Sendai official Senda Shima with the message of "The Allied Domains' assistance is owed to your domain," but as Shima was absent, they went to Segami Shuzen's encampment, and relayed the message. At the time, they happened to witness the capture of Sera Shuuzou, and were apparently moved to tears [that their mortal enemy had been caught]. They requested to Segami that they be allowed to personally behead Sera and take his head back to Aizu; however, this was refused. Instead, they requested that Segami allow them to take back some of Sera's hair, and this was allowed. After Sera's death, they took some of his hair, and returned to Aizu, relaying what had happened to Shirozaemon. On the 23rd of August, Isamu died at Tonoguchihara. He was 40. (Source: Tsunabuchi Kenjo's "Boshin Rakunichi," pub. by Bunshun-bunko) Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jintatsuno.htm

Tsuchiya Hikojiro (1776-1868) A baishin-level (rear vassal-level) Aizu samurai. Senior retainer of Aizu karo Saigo Tanomo. Killed in front of the Saigo residence's gate on 23 August (8 October by the Gregorian calendar) 1868. Together with Igarashi Chuemon and Yanase Ryugoro, Hikojiro was one of the three oldest Aizu casualties on record. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, pp. 87, 91)

Tsuchiya Ichian (??-1868) Aizu retainer. Doctor. Committed suicide in his residecne following the battle of Koga-cho Gate. Tanaka Tosa and Jinbo Kuranosuke, two karo who commanded the defensive force at Koga-cho gate, joined him in suicide at the same location. (CITATION NEEDED)

Wada Senroku (1838-1868) Aizu samurai. Served in the Shiroi artillery unit, and was wounded in action at the Battle of Toba-Fushimi. Taken back to Edo, he died of his wounds on 20 February. His uncle Yoshitaro is also listed among the war dead in the "Boshin-junnan Tsuitoroku," but there is no further information about him. Senroku died at 35. His grave at Chokokuji in Minato-ku, Tokyo. On the front of the stone is written "Grave of Wada Senroku." (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinwada.htm)

Watanabe Tamon (1828-1907) Aizu retainer, stipended at 12 nin-fuchi. Also known by his formal name Narimitsu. Served as a secretary, and held the simultaneous job of calligraphy instructor. During the Boshin War, he was in charge of provisions from the start of the Shirakawa campaign, in the latter half of June 1868 (by the new calendar). He also took part in the Battle of Bonari Pass, and also was present at Takizawa-honjin. He took part in the Battle of Chomeiji, in October (August by the old calendar) of 1868. He fought in various places under Sagawa Kanbei, and later wrote "Tatsu no Nikki Soukou." He moved to Tonami after the war, and lived in Sanbongi, continuing his career as a unique sort of author. His grave is in Chougetsuji Temple, Towada City, Aomori Prefecture. (Source: http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinwatanabe.htm)

Yamada Yojiro (1841-1873) Aizu retainer, stipended at 400 koku. Born the 2nd son of Saigo Tanomo (Chikaomo), Yojiro was adopted into the family of Yamada Naizo Naokata, the hereditary page corps director. During the Boshin War he was attached to Shujaku-Yoriai Unit 2, and deployed to Echigo, fighting in various battles on the north Echigo front. When the front reached Wakamatsu, he went to Sendai to request reinforcements; it is believed that this was when his birth brother Saigo Tanomo (Chikanori) was on the road to Sendai to do the same. Joining the Aizu-Yuugekitai (made up of Aizu survivors) as an officer, he fought hard on the Esashi front, surrendering when the fortress of Goryokaku fell in May. After the war, he was put in the care of the Koga domain. After his release the next year, he remained in the POW camp at Zojoji until April, and was arrested on 4 July 1870 for allegedly taking part in Kumoi Tatsuo's conspiracy to overthrow the government. Sentenced to ten years of hard labor, he died during his sentence, in Hakodate, on 16 January 1871. He was 31. His grave is in Okakuji, at Muryozan, in Aomori city. Yujiro left behind an orphan, named Juro, who joined the army and retired at the rank of colonel. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinyamada.htm)

Yamakawa Hiroshi (1845-1898) Aizu karo. Traveled to Europe with Koide Hidezane to negotiate the border dispute with Russia. Back in Japan, he took part in the Boshin War and the defense of Aizu, getting reinforcements through enemy lines by masquerading as a festival procession. Served in the Imperial Japanese Army. Author of a key work on Aizu history, Kyoto Shugoshoku Shimatsu (CITATION NEEDED).

Yamakawa Kenjiro (1854-1931) Aizu retainer. The younger brother of Yamakawa Okura, Kenjiro was assigned to the Byakkotai but fell ill. Taking part in defensive operations, he was within the castle by the time that his brother passed through enemy lines with reinforcements. After the war he was confined in Inawashiro, but escaped together with Akabane Shiro and other young men due to the aid of Kawai Zenjun, an Aizu monk. Later studying in Tokyo and also at Yale University in America, Kenjiro became a physicist. Together with his brother, he oversaw affairs for the Aizu-Matsudaira family, also serving as the core of a network of former Aizu samurai and their families. In the Meiji era, he was also a friend of the former Shinsengumi captain Fujita Goro (Saitou Hajime). He was ennobled as a baron in the new peerage system, and also served as privy councillor. Kenjiro married Niwa Ryu, the daughter of a former Karatsu-han retainer. Later in life, Kenjiro wrote several books on Aizu's history and involved himself in a great deal of correspondence on the same topic. His two great works, Aizu Boshin Senshi and Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, are the foremost early works on the topic, together with "Kyoto Shugoshoku Shimatsu" and Kitahara Masanaga's "Shichinenshi." Kenjiro also served as president of Tokyo University. As per his wishes, "Aizu Boshin Senshi" was released after his death. (Tsunabuchi Kenjo, ed. Matsudaira Katamori no Subete; Saitou Hajime no Subete, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, Aizu Boshin Senshi, CITATIONS NEEDED)

Yamakawa Toseko (??-1868) Daughter of Aizu retainer Kitahara Tadashi, a renowned spearman certified in Hozoin-ryu. Married Yamakawa Okura, who was promoted to karo rank during the Boshin War. She did her part to contribute, and was warm and obedient. She showed filiality to her mother-in-law, and love to her brothers and sisters-in-law. On the 23rd, together with her mother-in-law and sisters-in-law, she entered the castle and protected Teruhime, the Aizu princess. With her sister-in-law Misao, she oversaw care for the wounded. On 14 September, during the all-out attack, she was in Teruhime's quarters, when a shell exploded on them. Toseko was gravely wounded in three places, but she ignored her pain and first asked how her princess was faring. The princess sent a messenger to express her deepest thanks, and Toseko closed her eyes. Her demeanor [in death] was one of a hero. The monk Nissei, from Daihoji Temple, who was present within the castle, bestowed the funerary name Seikouinden-Myoengichu-nisshudaishi. She was buried in the well in the ninomaru (2nd citadel). Later, a grave was erected for her in Amida-ji Temple. (Source: Yamakawa Kenjiro, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, 57.)

Yanase Ryugoro (1777-1868) Aizu samurai. Uncle of Yanase Denji. Killed in action at Tsutsumizawa, in Monden-mura, in the Kita-Aizu district. Together with Tsuchiya Hikojiro and Igarashi Chuemon, Ryugoro was one of the oldest Aizu casualties on record. (Source: Yamakawa, Hoshu Aizu Byakkotai Jukyushi-den, pp. 87, 92)

Yanase Sanzaemon (??-??) Aizu karo. (Citation needed)

Yoshida Isoji (1818-1884) 5th son of Furukawa Jizaemon of Komagasaka Village, Iwashiro Province. When he grew up, he became the adopted son of Yoshida Iemon of Ushigahaka Village, and served as a village official for some time. During the Boshin War, he felt pity in seeing the bodies of the Byakkotai samurai decaying on Mt. Iimori, so he took their remains and buried them at Myokokuji Temple. However, the authorities of the new government heard of this and rebuked him, making him exhume the bodies and return them to rot on Mt. Iimori. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinyosida.htm)

Yumida Enzo (1814-1884) Aizu-born agriculturist and trader. Born in the Minamiyama Bakufu landholding (administered by Aizu), the son of the merchant Yumida family. He inherited the name Enzo, which was the hereditary name of the family head. Amassing great wealth, he put it to use for the benefit of the public. During the Boshin War, he contributed war funds to the Aizu domain. He was famous for building the Hosei dam (also known as the Enzo dam) in 1863. A stele recording his acheivements can be found in Shimosato-cho, south Aizu district, where his grave is also located. (Sources:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinyumida.htm)

Yuuki Kunitari (1800-1888) Aizu retainer. Also known as Heizaemon; eldest son of Yuuki Gunzaemon. Studied at the Nisshinkan school, and learned waka under Sawada Natari. Studying in various places in the prime of his life, he corresponded with Chitane Yuukou and Hatta Tomonori. Moving to Tonami in 1870, he opened a waka poetry-writing school in Gonohe. In 1872, he moved to Sapporo and once more taught waka. Over the course of his life, he was said to have written over 20,000 waka. His gravesite is unknown. (Source:http://baragaki.fc2web.com/aizukanjinbutsu/jinyuuki.htm)

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